Most of us wear headphones or earbuds every day. You may even have a favorite set of headphones that you’ve been wearing for years without ever cleaning or replacing the ear pads. This would put any germaphobe on red alert, but when it comes to headphone safety, microbes aren’t the only thing you need to worry about.

Headphones and earbuds can have a significant impact on your wellbeing, both good and bad. We’ve compiled all the health risks you should be aware of when purchasing new headphones or wearing them on a daily basis.

Can headphones or earbuds generally cause ear infections?

A child listening to headphones, used for illustrative effect when addressing how to find new music.

Headphone use has been increasing over the past few years, especially in children and adolescents.

While headphones and earbuds can cause infections, it’s a rather rare occurrence. Ear infections are a combination of trauma in the ear canal and common bacteria that penetrate the damaged tissue. At first, the ears are itchy and sore. As the infection progresses, the ear can swell up and become painful. These infections are also known as swimmer’s ear because the bacteria that trigger it are commonly found in lakes, hot tubs, and pools; the medical term is otitis externa.

We’ve seen reports of an uptick in ear infections caused by earbuds for a few years now. Not many studies assess whether headphones or earbuds can cause ear infections. The few that do, like this study from 2002, can’t establish a link between ear infections and headphone use, but they also don’t examine earbuds. However, studies show hearing aids change the ear canal flora and increase the risk of infections.

A woman wears the Signia Active Pro hearing aid into her right ear.

Signia The Signia Active Pro hearing aid looks like a regular true wireless earbud.

Earbuds are similar to hearing aids in that they seal up the ear canal, trap moisture and earwax, and thereby encourage the growth of fungi and bacteria captured in an environment conducive to their proliferation. It’s quite likely that frequent earbud use also increases your risk of ear infections, and probably more than on- or over-ear headphone use. But the risk remains low, unless a scratch or a reaction to a material found in the earbuds provides a way for the microbes to infect your ear.

Here’s what you can do to prevent ear infections from headphone use:

  • Avoid skin contact with materials you’re allergic to.
  • Clean new headphones or earbuds before you use them for the first time.
  • Regularly clean all your headgear; at least once a week and after each sweat-inducing chore or workout.
  • Avoid sharing earbuds and clean headphones before and after you share them.
  • Limit your use of headphones and earbuds to a couple of hours per day.

Find out more: Prevent pain and infection when wearing earbuds

Are some earbuds more likely to cause ear infections than others?

A man wears the Samsung Galaxy Buds Pro true wireless earbuds

The Samsung Galaxy Buds Pro contains materials that may cause ear infections.

Occasionally, reports about specific earbud models causing ear infections emerge, like with the Samsung Galaxy Buds Pro. Android Central, dozens of users on Reddit, and a Samsung Community thread all report discomfort and ear infections after wearing the Samsung Galaxy Buds Pro, but not when using other Samsung earbuds. One affected user is taking Samsung to court over the matter. Meanwhile, Samsung has been offering refunds and coverage of medical bills.

This unusual accumulation of cases caused by one specific product is typically caused by an allergic reaction to materials used in that product. Nickel and acrylates are common culprits. Many earbud manufacturers warn of potential complications with these materials, including Apple and Samsung.

A top-down image of the Creative Outlier Air earbuds with the nozzles facing upward.

The Creative Outlier Air use silicone ear tips and feature charging contacts facing the skin.

Nickel is a common component of stainless steel. Manufacturers often use stainless steel in charging contacts and the acoustic mesh that covers the tip of each earbud. While headphone manufacturers keep the amount of nickel below strict levels set by international regulations, people allergic to nickel might still develop skin reactions upon contact.

Related: What are common types and signs of hearing loss?

Acrylates are commonly found in adhesives and are used to color plastics. Earbuds often contain trace amounts of acrylates and methacrylates which can compromise headphone safety for those with a sensitivity to these materials. The tiniest amount of acrylate buildup is enough to trigger a reaction.

Some people can even react to ear tips, as Ashish C. Bhatia MC, FAAD reports:

Interestingly, I have seen a case of dermatitis associated with the AirPods Pro earbuds. However, (…) the offending portion of the AirPods Pro was the soft removable earpiece.

Silicone ear tips can cause contact dermatitis. Scratching your irritated and itchy skin can lead to an ear infection. A quick solution can be to replace the silicone ear tips with foam ear tips.

Note that allergies can develop in response to continued exposure to a specific allergen. That would explain an increase in ear infections following extended earbud use. Another reminder to listen to your body, take breaks, and switch it up.

All things are poison, and nothing is without poison; the dosage alone makes it so a thing is not a poison. —Paracelsus

Allergic reactions and ear infections aren’t the only complications associated with earbud and headphone use. Other health risks are actually more common and potentially more serious.

Can headphones or earbuds cause motion sickness?

Many people report dizziness, motion sickness, or vertigo when using headphones. Active noise cancelling (ANC) headphones are a common culprit because the lack of external noise can fool your ears and confuse your brain.

A spinning record with vertigo-inducing rings in its center.

Pexels Noise cancelling headphones can cause disorientation.

Your ears don’t just facilitate hearing. The inner ear also helps your brain pinpoint your body’s physical orientation in space, which is important for maintaining balance. Removing environmental cues, such as ambient sound, from the equation can throw this fine-tuned system out of whack. If you experience nausea or vertigo while using ANC, try turning the ANC down or off.

Learn more: How do noise cancelling headphones work?

People sensitive to physical pressure on their ears can have a similar experience with over-ear or in-ear headphones. Bone conduction headphones or open-back headphones can bring relief. Not using headphones all day long might also reset your tolerance.

Headphone safety: Can headphones or earbuds cause hearing loss?

Speedometer-style noise level depiction and how different volumes correspond to everyday noise sources, used to address headphone safety.

World Health Organization Unsafe noise levels start at 85dB, if exposure exceeds the safe listening time.

Headphones and earbuds can cause noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL), but it’s easy to avoid. Volume and exposure time are the two key factors in NIHL. Any noise louder than a vacuum cleaner at 75dB(SPL) can threaten your hearing. While it takes many hours until a noise at 80dB (SPL) becomes troublesome, only a few minutes at 115dB(SPL) can cause irreversible hearing loss.

Read more: What is noise-induced hearing loss and how to prevent it?

Most headphones max out at 115dB(SPL). So be sure to keep your volume levels well below 100% or limit your listening time if you have to go over. To stay on the safe side, you could also try volume-limited headphones.

A volume limiter literally limits audio output to a safe listening level, typically 85dB(SPL).

Hearing loss sneaks up on all of us as we age. It usually affects higher frequencies first. Those are non-critical because they don’t affect speech recognition. But when hearing loss starts to show up in the sub-8kHz region, it gets serious. Take a minute and complete a free online hearing test to find out whether you’re affected.

If your test shows signs of hearing loss, even if it’s mild or moderate, you should consult a professional. Don’t turn a deaf ear to them if they recommend hearing aids. Hearing loss is increasingly common among young people, but stigma prevents them from immediately seeking help. Untreated hearing loss can have wide-reaching consequences for your mental health and wellbeing.

You might like: How do hearing aids work?

Can headphones or earbuds cause tinnitus?

A skeleton screams into the void.

Sabina Music Rich NIHL often triggers chronic tinnitus.

Headphones or earbuds can indirectly cause tinnitus, but if you suspect noise cancelling or Bluetooth causes the ringing in the ears, you’d be wrong. Rather, tinnitus is a natural consequence of hearing loss.

We’ve already established that headphones can cause noise-induced hearing loss if used at high volumes for too long. Hence, tinnitus can be an indirect result of damaging noise exposure, something that’s easily “achieved” with headphones and earbuds. One more reason to keep the volume down!

Read on: Can headphones cause tinnitus?

Note that Tinnitus isn’t always caused by hearing loss. And if you do have hearing loss and debilitating ringing in the ears, for whatever reason, hearing aids can help.

What about Bluetooth headphone safety?

A woman wears the Beats Fit Pro noise cancelling true wireless earbuds in purple.

Headphone safety is important, but Bluetooth earbuds like the Beats Fit Pro are not dangerous.

You might have heard that Bluetooth poses a health risk. We’re here to tell you that Bluetooth is safe. It doesn’t cause brain damage or cancer. There’s more, and we discuss it in detail in our dedicated Bluetooth feature.

Learn more: Is Bluetooth dangerous?

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